Other important requirements include a sound ecological understanding of the system, including connectedness, ecological dynamics and the context in which the system is embedded. An understanding of the role of humans as components of the ecosystems and the use of adaptive management is also important. As a concept of natural resource management , ecosystem management remains both ambiguous and controversial, in part because some of its formulations rest on policy and scientific assertions that are contested.
Professional natural resource managers, typically operating from within government bureaucracies and professional organizations, often mask debate over controversial assertions by depicting ecosystem management as an evolution of past management approaches. Stakeholders are individuals or groups of people who are affected by environmental decisions and actions, but they also may have power to influence the outcomes of environmental decisions relating to ecosystem management.
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Adaptive management aims to identify uncertainties in the management of an ecosystem while using hypothesis testing to further understand the system. Adaptive management has had mixed success in the field of ecosystem management, possibly because ecosystem managers may not be equipped with the decision-making skills needed to undertake an adaptive management methodology.
The term natural resource management is frequently used when dealing with a particular resource for human use rather than managing the whole ecosystem. A variety of natural resources are utilized for food, medicine, energy and shelter.
Conservation and Sustainable Use: A Handbook of Techniques (Techniques in Ecology and Conservation)
The ecosystem management concept is based on the relationship between sustainable resource maintenance and human demand for use of natural resources. If the ecosystem supporting resources is healthy, managers can decide on the ideal amount of resource extraction, while leaving enough to allow the resource to replenish itself for subsequent harvests. However, some ecosystems such as forests , which typically provide considerable timber resources; have sometimes undergone successful reforestation processes and consequently have accommodated the needs of future generations.
A successfully managed resource will provide for current demand while leaving enough to repopulate and provide for future demand. Human populations have been increasing rapidly, introducing new stressors to ecosystems, such as climate change and influxes of invasive species. As a result, the demand for natural resources is unpredictable. These tools will continue to be highly beneficial in natural resources management.
Strategic management encourages the establishment of goals that will benefit the ecosystem while keeping socioeconomic and politically relevant issues in mind. Similarly to other modes of ecosystem management, this method places a high level of importance on evaluating and reviewing any changes, progress, or negative impacts and prioritizes flexibility in adapting management protocols as a result of new information. Landscape level conservation is a method that considers wildlife needs at a broader landscape level scale when implementing conservation initiatives.
Landscape level conservation is carried out in a number of ways. A wildlife corridor , for example, is a connection between otherwise isolated habitat patches that are proposed as a solution to habitat fragmentation.
Insect biodiversity and global change
Human-induced environmental degradation is an increasing problem globally, which is why landscape level ecology plays an important role in ecosystem management. Consequently, there has been a transition away from command and control management due to many undesirable outcomes and a stronger focus has been placed on more holistic approaches that focus on adaptive management and finding solutions through partnerships. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Conservation paradigm factoring in natural and human use of resources and ecosystem services.
Forest Ecology and Conservation
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Main article: Natural resource management. Main article: Strategic management. Landscape and Urban Planning.
Forest ecology and conservation: a handbook of techniques.
Stuart; Pamela A. Matson; Harold A. Mooney Principles of Terrestrial Ecosystem Ecology. New York: Springer. Ecological Applications. Michael Reed; C. Richard Tracy Journal of Sustainable Forestry. A typology of stakeholder analysis methods for natural resource management". Innovations in Chemical Physics and Mesoscopy. Innovations in Computational Chemistry. Innovations in Horticultural Science.
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